George Lichtnenberg

In 1777 a German physicist George Lichtenberg (1742-1799) touched a metal electrode covered with glass and connected to voltage with his finger while experimenting with the electrical machine. And suddenly a burst of sparkles flew all around. This was magically beautiful, although a little bit frightening. Lichtenberg jerked back the finger and then repeated the experiment. The finger placed on the electrode was shining with bright blue light and treelike sparkles dispersed from it.

Lichtenberg, being a real academic scientist, investigated the behavior of this fluorescence in detail, although he substituted a grounded wire for a finger. The effect was the same, which later suggested an idea that some special energy exists in the body, and first electrical then torsion properties were attributed to it.Articles by Lichtenberg, masterfully done in German, are still cited in books on gas discharge. Further research demonstrated that electrical fluorescence was rather common in nature…


The effect of discharge in the high voltage field observed in the experiments Tesla, Rengo and D'Arsonval, at voltages above 30 kV (especially good discharge visible after a 100kV).

Two major invention that allowed to implement a method of photographing images of various objects in the high-frequency field:

  • 1839 invention of photography Daguerre;
  • 1842-G. Karsten, Berlin. Germany.
    He put a coin on a glass plate and gave it a few sparks from the electric machine. If you then breathe on the glass, it was seen the image of the coin. He called these figures «electrical breath figures».

Heinrich Daniel Ruhmkorff

Creation Ruhmkorff coil



Lachinov Dmitry Alexandrovich

Russian physicist and electrical engineer, SPGU, Professor of Forest Institute, St. Petersburg. Since 1877 Lachinov worked on the gas discharge visualization. During the first experiments filmed bright discharge (spark induction coil connected to a capacitor) or dim when entered in a long chain of the resistance gave a discharge discharge. The second and third series of experiments was carried out without a camera, the category of sliding along the surface of the dry bromzhelatinovoy plate and left her a trail that the manifestation is made visible, nothing else, as one of the first examples of the so-called gas discharge visualization.


Fernando Sanford

Spanish, a professor at Stanford University (USA). In 1879, during an internship in Germany, he worked with Hermann Von Helmholtz. In an article published in 1894 in Physical Review he wrote that in 1891 he conducted research method of electrical pictures. The article was published pictures of his fingers. He received image coins on paper coated with a thin layer of gelatin and silver bromide, which was located between two metal electrodes. Then he got an image on a photographic plate glass. After acquaintance with Article Crofts WB He began to experiment with coins. He believed that the discharge on the sides of the metal coin is an artifact, a nuisance, and tried his best to get rid of this effect. He did not know that this is the main effect, and later studied Kirlian. He tried for several years to eliminate this effect, he did not succeed, and he took up other studies.



Nikola Tesla

Serbian (US) inventor. 1892 In his laboratory in Colorado, Tesla spent a lot of experiments with high voltage and high- frequency currents. In his lectures and demonstrations in London and Paris Nikola Tesla demonstrated the discharge of his own body and the possibility of gas discharge discharge photographing living organisms in high-frequency currents with the camera. He reproduced the discharge items, corona discharge, and photographed on a photographic plate. His method he called "gas-discharge visualization" of his experiment, he wrote: "The human body has been exposed to a high-frequency electrical generator with a voltage of 2.5 million volts. It was an unforgettable effect. Away from the body long dischargeing bits, like the tentacles of an octopus. From spine beams of light fade. When a man pulls his hands, with the fingertips roaring flames erupt. This effect he called "cold fire» «Cold Fire».

In 1896, the United States, in Colorado Springs, Nikola Tesla put in a physical lab is interesting, but it is very risky experiment. On the generator capacity of 1 million volts it was placed ebony insulator large. He was placed on a metal plate connected to a DC generator. A similar plate was reinforced top. It is also connected to the generator. Nikola Tesla became the lower metal plate, which has been hard rubber pad and was in the field of high voltage. Picture taken at this point showed a bright discharge around the entire body of the scientist. Thus, for the first time in the history of mankind was caught discharge around the person. This phenomenon is called the Tesla effect.Tesla discovered a great therapeutic effect on the action of high-frequency field. When high frequency current is distributed over the skin surface (skin effect), and does not affect internal organs. In 1903, the Wardenclyffe laboratory produces and sells high therapeutic generators medical community across the country. Article 1894 The New York Times, Tesla describes the possible dangers if the voltage and frequency or a too low: In this case, the image of "streamers" cause a tingling sensation as the needle. If the oscillation frequency is quite low, the skin is likely to be broken due to a tremor, blood will be sprayed with great force in a spray or jet is so thin to be visible.

The Tesla Memorial Society


Yakov Narkevich-Todka Jakob von Narkiewitsch-Jodko

Belarusian scientists announced developed a "method for registration of energy emitted by a living organism when exposed to an electric field," which they have been called "electrography". Plate lights up blowing out direct discharges. They were given the task to register the process of absorption and emission of electricity by the body. Research in this direction, he devotes most of his scientific career. J. Narkevich-Yodko developed his own original technique for making electro photographs. He made more than 1500 photographs of fingers of different people, plant leaves, grain, and in the 1890's this research attracted attention in the scientific community. In 1892 J. Narkevich-Yodko presented for the professors of St. Petersburg Institute of Experimental Medicine, after which he was appointed a "Member Employee of this Institute" by the order of the Institute patron, the Prince of Oldenburg. The results of Narkevich-Yodko created such an impression upon the scientific community that in 1893 a conference on electrography and electrophysiology was organized in St. Petersburg University. In the same year Narkevich-Yodko visited the scientific centers of Europe: Berlin, Vienna, Paris, Prague, Florence and gave lectures there. His experiments on electrography were acknowledged as important and envisaging further development everywhere. NarkevichYodko received medals at several exhibitions, and at the Congress in France in 1900 he was nominated a professor of electrography and magnetism.


Father Riberto Landell de Moura

imgCatholic priest, Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil. He studied physics and invented electrophotographic (electric discharge) camera which he called "Bioelectrographic Machine". He developed a method of photographic electric discharge. He received hundreds of pictures of various objects discharge, including humans. He called the discharge around the human body «Perianto». He conducted the study from 1904 to 1912. During the eight years of research, he made hundreds of photos. He called the discharge around the body «Perianto». But his invention was not registered as the device was confiscated church. Some of the drawings have been preserved in books devoted to his biography. In Porto Alegre is a museum dedicated to Morua.


Frederick Finch Strong

lecturer in electrotherapy, Tufta Medical School, Boston (USA).In a lecture at Startlihg Manner, he showed the discharge of the body. The applied voltage with a frequency of 2 MHz.



Silvester Pratt & Jan Schlemmer

In Prague, studied contact prints of various objects (the leaves of plants), electrical discharge, and repeat the experiment V.Tsapeka F.Nifera. They found that radiation is like the unknown through the screens, impervious to infrared, visible, and ultraviolet. There was a question whether it can be some unknown radiation? It has been suggested on the ionic nature of the radiation.


Semyon Davidovich Kirlian

Discovered the effect of gas discharge discharge


Inyushin Viktor Mikhailovich

Published a paper "On the question of studying the luminescence of tissues in the high-voltage discharge." Collection on the biological action of a monochromatic red light. KSU. Alma-Ata.


Newton Milhomens

Brazil, began to study with a camera of its own design. He was engaged in the definition of the status of patients in the clinical psychological hospital.


  • 1970 After a visit in 1970 by the American psychologist T.Moss (Thelma Moss) of neuropsychiatric University (Los Angeles) to Adamenko VG Moscow and Inyushin VM Alma-Ata their work become known abroad.
  • 1971 Firm Edmund Scientific Co. (USA) started serial production of the device to register Kirlianograms «Kirlian Lab».
  • 1972-1 th Conference on Kirlian photography. New York. 500 participants. Organizer Professor S.Krippner, an American psychologist, head of the "Center for the Study of Dreams."
  • 1974 United States, Dr. Stanley parapsychology Knippner (Stanley Krippner) published the book "Kirlian Aura", in which he described, adhering to the scientific approach, all that was known at the time of the Kirlian effect.
  • 1975 Adamenko, Victor G. (Moscow) defended the first dissertation on Kirlian. Adamenko VG Investigation of the mechanism of formation of images obtained by a high-frequency electric discharge. Thesis of the candidate physical and mathematical sciences. Minsk.
  • 1975 Brazil, Professor Newton Milhomen published a guide to deciphering the Kirlian photographs in medical diagnostics for psychophysiological state of human health.
  • 1976-1978 years. Proven high reliability of Kirlian diagnosis of the physiological condition of the body. Work was carried out in the United States Organization for Space Research NASA (Apollo program Saturn). Author Frederick Bell.
  • 1978 organization in the United States and the United Kingdom of the International Union of Medical and Applied Bioelectrography (International Union of Medical & Applied Bioelectrography, IUMAB). 1979 I. Dumitrescu Romania began to research the method of Kirlian.


  • 1982 Korotkov KG defended the thesis of the candidate of physical and mathematical sciences on discharge visualization.
  • 1983 Germany, doctor Peter Mandel (Peter Mandel) patented the Kirlian camera system and published in medical diagnostics, based on compliance of certain sectors in the crown of light fingers and toes specific organs and systems of the human body, and the view of the corona radiation is determined by the stage of the disease.
  • 1983 Brazil, developed and commercially produced Kirlian Camera "Newton Milhomena Standart" for use in the practice of medicine in accordance with the "The Official Brasilian Standard of Kirliangraphy", based on the results of the statistics gathered in the course of 15 years, Kirlian image capture on color film. Author Milhomens Newton (Newton Milhomens).
  • 1986 The first congress in Brazil dedicated to the Kirlian method.

1990 till our times

  • 1995 Korotkov KG developed the first hardware-software complex "Crown-TV", which allows to capture the discharge of objects and process them on the computer numerical characteristics.
  • 1995 Finland, Bioelectrography based International Union for the coordination and development of bioelectrography comprising Kirlian photography.
  • 1998 In February 1998, on the initiative of Dinskoy Museum in Krasnodar were held Kirlian readings dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Honored inventor RSFSR Semen Davidovich Kirlian and released a collection of reports and articles.
  • 1999 Korotkov KG defended his doctoral thesis on gas discharge visualization.
  • 1999 till our times - International Scientific Congress "Science. Information. Consciousness." St. Petersburg. July. www.sis-congress.com